The turbocharger is a very mature device that has been refined over the past 100+ years to achieve the right compromise between competing requirements. Efficiency, boost pressure, and range are all important goals, but so are low inertia to combat turbo lag, and low cost for commercial success. For off-highway vehicles, durability and service life are also important. These vehicles often operate over extreme load cycles and in very dusty conditions. In some circumstances, foreign object damage and blade fatigue may be life-limiting for the turbocharger. Turbocharger manufacturers in this space have focused on getting the right balance of these factors rather than maximizing any single parameter, and designers know that further gains in one area come at a cost to the others.